Ultra trace minerals: Part 2
Published: August 16, 2019
- Little research into essentiality of vanadium, aluminum, bromine, cadmium, germanium, lead, lithium, rubidium and tin
- lead is known to be toxic to humans.
Despite the lack of understanding about these minerals and requirement for human health some are included in multivitamin supplements.
- Vanadium exists in several forms which in solution give a range of colours from blue to yellow/orange.
- Dietary sources: Cereals and grain products, fats/oils, shell fish, black pepper, parsley, dill seed, canned apple juice, mushrooms, sweeteners, and beer and wine
- Currently no recommended daily intake
- The tolerable upper level for vanadium has been established at 1.8 mg/day.
- Toxicity: Has occurred above 10 mg doses. Symptoms include green tongue, gastrointestinal cramps, diarrhea, disturbed mental function, high blood pressure and renal complications.
- Deficiency: associated with thyroid gland function, iodine metabolism, restricted growth rate, peri-natal survival, physical appearance, and changes in volume of red blood cells in your blood.
- Aluminum or aluminium does not appear to have any human biological function.
- High doses may lead to negative health effects such as: changes in your blood-brain barrier function, allergenic reactions through ingestion such as dermatitis, digestive disorders, and toxicity if more than 40mg/day per kg of body weight is ingested
- Aluminium absorption from aluminium cookware is significantly increased when acidic foods or liquids cooked in aluminium cookware
- Aluminium can accumulate in nervous tissue.
- May be an association between aluminium and estrogen related gene expression in laboratory cultured human breast cancer cells
- A biological role for bromine has not yet been specified
- Bromine as bromide potentially an essential element for humans: may be necessary for the proper function of a specific protein required in your extracellular framework.
- A biological role for cadmium in humans has not yet been identified.
- Cadmium is found in humans concentrated in your kidneys.
- At high levels of absorption cadmium can be toxic: Inhalation of cadmium fumes may lead to lung disease and death.
- Sources of cadmium: fertilizers, soils, many manufacturing processes, bread, root crops and vegetables, crustaceans, mollusks, offal, and algae products and cigarettes
- Cadmium as a carcinogen: may induce breast cancer, occupational exposure may lead to lung and prostate cancer, dietary exposure may increase risk of osteoporosis, and endometrial, breast and prostate cancer.
- Cadmium and disease: increased risk cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and kidney disease.
- Toxicity: may be reduced by the presence of zinc, copper, calcium, iron, selenium and vitamin C
- Germanium is not essential to human health: is ingested in only very small amounts
- Organic and inorganic germanium supplements may have the potential to treat leukemia and lung cancer.
- Inorganic supplements may be harmful and over time and may result in kidney dysfunction, fatty liver, and peripheral nerve damage.
- Lead is highly toxic to human health
- Deficiency in rats and pigs may lead to anaemia, restricted growth, and altered iron metabolism
- Ingestion is the principle source of lead exposure, can also be inhaled and absorbed through contact.
- Maximum level of lead allowed in pharmaceuticals is 1.0 mcg/g which is representative of maximum daily intake for humans.
- Adverse effects of lead on human metabolism: inhibits iron absorption, competes with calcium for absorption and metabolic activities, may adversely affect cognition, nerves, kidneys, immune system cardiovascular system, and fertility
- Dietary sources of lead: water, fruits, vegetables, and alcohol may be contaminated with lead from various sources
- Lithium is found in most animal tissue in trace amount as well as in plants, plankton and invertebrates.
- Lithium salts are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder and cyclic major depression.
- If used by women in the first trimester of pregnancy increased risk of Ebstein’s cardiac anomaly in offspring.
- No biological role identified, essentiality not determined, but rubidium is used to detect brain tumours
- Rubidium tends to concentrate inside your body cells.
- Toxicity: not thought to be toxic
- Negative health effects are not seen with up to 36 g of rubidium. In rats death resulted when greater than 50% of potassium was substituted by rubidium in muscle.
- May influence depression in persons undergoing dialysis
- There are no known biological roles for tin which can be absorbed into your body through inhalation, skin contact and eye contact.
- Organotin compounds appear to be highly toxic.
- Over exposure may inhibit copper and zinc metabolism.
- Tin is found in dental products
Link to the full article to learn more about these Ultra trace minerals